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Hydroxyurea Mechanism

hydroxyurea mechanism

Mechanism of action of hydroxyurea.Hydroxyurea is well absorbed after oral administration, converted to a free radical nitroxide in vivo, and transported by diffusion into cells where it quenches the tyrosyl free radical at the active site of the M2 protein subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, inactivating the enzyme.

Mechanism of action of hydroxyurea.

Hydroxyurea is well absorbed after oral administration, converted to a free radical nitroxide in vivo, and transported by diffusion into cells where it quenches the tyrosyl free radical at the active site of the M2 protein subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, inactivating the enzyme. The entire replitase complex, including ribonucleotide reductase, is inactivated and DNA synthesis is selectively inhibited, producing cell death in S phase and synchronization of the fraction of cells that survive. Repair of DNA damaged by chemicals or irradiation is also inhibited by hydroxyurea, offering potential synergy between hydroxyurea and radiation or alkylating agents.

WHAT IS HYDROXYUREA (DROXIA, HYDREA)?

Hydroxyurea affects certain cells in the body, such as cancer cells or sickled red blood cells.

Hydroxyurea is used to treat chronic myeloid leukemia, ovarian cancer, and certain types of skin cancer (squamous cell cancer of the head and neck).

Hydroxyurea is also used to reduce pain episodes and the need for blood transfusions in people with sickle cell anemia. Hydroxyurea will not cure sickle cell anemia.

Hydroxyurea may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.

WHAT SHOULD I DISCUSS WITH MY HEALTHCARE PROVIDER BEFORE TAKING HYDROXYUREA (DROXIA, HYDREA)?

You should not use hydroxyurea if you are allergic to it.

To make sure hydroxyurea is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:

  • bone marrow suppression or anemia (low red blood cells);
  • low levels of platelets in your blood;
  • a history of skin cancer;
  • high levels of uric acid in your blood;
  • HIV or AIDS;
  • kidney disease (or if you are on dialysis);
  • liver disease;
  • a pancreas disorder; or
  • if you are receiving chemotherapy or radiation.

WHAT HAPPENS IF I MISS A DOSE (DROXIA, HYDREA)?

Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.

WHAT HAPPENS IF I OVERDOSE (DROXIA, HYDREA)?

Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.

Overdose symptoms may include drowsiness, mouth sores, and swelling with pain and purple discoloration in your hands and feet.

WHAT OTHER DRUGS WILL AFFECT HYDROXYUREA (DROXIA, HYDREA)?

Some medicines can increase your risk of certain side effects while taking hydroxyurea. Tell your doctor if you are also using didanosine, stavudine, or an interferon (such as Actimmune, Alferon, Avonex, Betaseron, Extavia, Infergen, Intron, Rebetron, Rebif, or Roferon).

Other drugs may interact with hydroxyurea, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.

Dosing Information

HYDREA is used alone or in conjunction with other antitumor agents or radiation therapy to

treat neoplastic diseases. Individualize treatment based on tumor type, disease state, response to

treatment, patient risk factors, and current clinical practice standards.

Base all dosage on the patient’s actual or ideal weight, whichever is less.

HYDREA is a cytotoxic drug. Follow applicable special handling and disposal procedures.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Hydroxyurea causes severe myelosuppression. Treatment with hydroxyurea should not beinitiated if bone marrow function is markedly depressed. Bone marrow suppression may occur,and leukopenia is generally its first and most common manifestation. Thrombocytopenia andanemia occur less often and are seldom seen without a preceding leukopenia. Bone marrowdepression is more likely in patients who have previously received radiotherapy or cytotoxiccancer chemotherapeutic agents; use hydroxyurea cautiously in such patients.Evaluate hematologic status prior to and during treatment with HYDREA. Provide supportivecare and modify dose or discontinue HYDREA as needed. Recovery from myelosuppression isusually rapid when therapy is interrupted.

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