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Desmopressin Nasal Spray

desmopressin nasal spray

Uses

Desmopressin is used to control the amount of urine your kidneys make. Normally, the amount of urine you make is controlled by a certain substance in the body called vasopressin. In people who have "water diabetes" (diabetes insipidus) or certain kinds of head injury or brain surgery, the body does not make enough vasopressin. Desmopressin is a man-made form of vasopressin and is used to replace a low level of vasopressin. This medication helps to control increased thirst and too much urination due to these conditions, and helps prevent dehydration.

Desmopressin products applied in the nose are no longer indicated to control nighttime bedwetting in children because of the increased risk of developing a serious side effect (a low level of sodium in the blood).

Dosage and administration

Central Cranial Diabetes Insipidus: DDAVP Nasal Spray (desmopressin acetate nasal spray) dosage must be determined for each individual patient and adjusted according to the diurnal pattern of response. Response should be estimated by two parameters: adequate duration of sleep and adequate, not excessive, water turnover. Patients with nasal congestion and blockage have often responded well to intranasal DDAVP. The usual dosage range in adults is 0.1 to 0.4 mL daily, either as a single dose or divided into two or three doses. Most adults require 0.2 mL daily in two divided doses. The morning and evening doses should be separately adjusted for an adequate diurnal rhythm of water turnover.

For children aged 3 months to 12 years, the usual dosage range is 0.05 to 0.3 mL daily, either as a single dose or divided into two doses. About 1/4 to 1/3 of patients can be controlled by a single daily dose of DDAVP administered intranasally. Fluid restriction should be observed. (See WARNINGS, PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use and Geriatric Use.)

Drug interactions

Although the pressor activity of DDAVP is very low compared to the antidiuretic activity, use of large doses of intranasal DDAVP with other pressor agents should only be done with careful patient monitoring. The concomitant administration of drugs that may increase the risk of water intoxication with hyponatremia, (e.g. tricyclic antidepressants, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, chlorpromazine, opiate analgesics, NSAIDs, lamotrigine and carbamazepine) should be performed with caution.

Warnings

Very rare cases of hyponatremia have been reported from world-wide postmarketing experience in patients treated with DDAVP (desmopressin acetate). DDAVP is a potent antidiuretic which, when administered, may lead to water intoxication and/or hyponatremia. Unless properly diagnosed and treated hyponatremia can be fatal. Therefore, fluid restriction is recommended and should be discussed with the patient and/or guardian. Careful medical supervision is required.

When DDAVP Nasal Spray (desmopressin acetate nasal spray) is administered, in particular in pediatric and geriatric patients, fluid intake should be adjusted downward in order to decrease the potential occurrence of water intoxication and hyponatremia (See PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use and Geriatric Use.)

All patients receiving DDAVP therapy should be observed for the following signs or symptoms associated with hyponatremia: headache, nausea/vomiting, decreased serum sodium weight gain, restlessness, fatigue, lethargy, disorientation, depressed reflexes, loss of appetite, irritability, muscle weakness, muscle spasms or cramps and abnormal mental status such as hallucinations, decreased consciousness and confusion. Severe symptoms may include one or a combination of the following: seizure, coma and/or respiratory arrest. Particular attention should be paid to the possibility of the rare occurrence of an extreme decrease in plasma osmolality that may result in seizures which could lead to coma.

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